Departing from the usual conspiratorial discourse that sees foreign plots in all what befalls Arab societies, a growing number of voices are laying the blame for the proliferation of groups such as ISIS squarely on Arab-Islamic culture.
First to come under attack after the ISIS leader appointed himself caliph this summer, was the hallowed notion that the historical caliphate was some kind of a golden age, a lost utopia, that Muslims should strive to resurrect.
ONE WRITER after another exposed the ruthlessness of successive caliphs in their pursuit of power and suppression of dissent and concluded that ISIS, far from being an aberration, was in fact a textbook example of brutality in the name of Islam.
"...critics said, it's time to examine Islamic tradition"Instead of blaming foreign powers for a home-made malaise, critics said, it's time to examine Islamic tradition and purge its literature of books that glorifies military prowess and supremacy in the name of Islam.
A Saudi scholar (Ibrahim El Belahi) lambasted Islamic culture for its obsession with the myth of the golden past and chronic ineptitude to think of the future as something completely different. Speaking on primetime tv, Dr Ibrahim Al Belehi said ethics for the Arabs meant only sexual morality, adding that his countrymen fail to realise that Western culture has higher moral standards in all other aspects of life when compared to Arab societies – a highly unusual thing for a Saudi to say publicly in the ultraconservative Gulf region.
Several other critics picked on the oral tradition (known as hadith) attributed to prophet Mohammed in which he is reported to have threatened his enemies saying that “he had come to slaughter them” – a line that was quoted in one of the propaganda videos released recently by ISIS.
A prominent Egyptian broadcaster launched a scathing attack on that tradition, which was written long after the death of Mohammed, and is still used today to bestow religious legitimacy on everything from female genital mutilation to the killing of apostates. The authenticity of such tradition is the subject of much controversy, not least because it has been elevated to the status of the Quran itself. As a result, the broadcaster is now being investigated for blasphemy.
This has added more fury to the burgeoning rage against the official Islamic establishment which has been accused of being the incubator of the very ideas that led to the emergence of militant Islamic ideologies.
MORE PERSPECTIVES Think again. In these cities, Islamic rule gave women more power.
While traditionally secular critics have directed their salvo at the Wahhabi (Saudi) brand of Islam, this time, the oldest seat of Sunni Islamic learning, Al-Azhar university in Cairo, has come in for a lot of harsh criticism.
Despite being often touted as the bastion of moderation and a bulwark against intolerance and extremism, writers and scholars have sought to expose this as a fallacy, highlighting that the extremist views propagated by ISIS are part and parcel of the religious education offered by the thousands of schools and seminaries run by Al-Azhar, which also trains thousands of Imams for Egypt and the wider world.
Far from inoculating the youth against militant Islam, its critics argued, the Azhar curriculum contains the very seeds of extremism that blight some Muslim majority societies today.
The whole tenor of the debate is that Muslim societies should stop blaming others for their woes, and acknowledge their complicity.
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"The sermon by Al Baghdadi after ISIS captured Mosul this summer could have easily been delivered in any mosque..."
The moral of this debate is simple and frightening. The ideological sources of extremism have firm roots in traditional Islam, and unless this is widely acknowleged and uprooted, bombing ISIS out of existence, if that is at all possible, will provide the world only with a reprieve, before another clone takes over in Yemen or Libya or Somalia.
CONTRARY TO the mantra repeated by Western politicians that ISIS offers a distorted or warped view of Islam, the debate in the Arab world points exactly in the opposite direction: ISIS, Al-Qaeda and other militant groups draw upon the mainstream texts of Islamic tradition. The sermon by Abu Omar Al Baghdadi after ISIS captured Mosul this summer could have easily been delivered in any mosque in Cairo or Riyadh or Morocco.
Only a root and branch reform of the way Islam is preached and taught could dry up the swamp out of which the likes of ISIS grow and flourish. The debate in the Arab world today may just be the beginning of a process that will inevitably be very difficult and long.
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