Among those pledging assistance were the Qatar Charity and the Kuwait-based International Islamic Charitable Organisation.
Each organisation pledged to provide a grant of $100 million, payable over three years, according to a statement from conference organisers.
The Qatari Red Crescent pledged $10 million, officials said.
Yemeni government spokesman Rajeh Badi told AFP that the situation inside the country was "disastrous".
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"The whole of Yemen suffers and sectors of education, health and food are the most urgent," he said.
The United Nations warned this month of a "human catastrophe unfolding in Yemen".
It said more than 6,100 people had been killed in the fighting since last March, when a Saudi-led coalition, including Qatari forces, launched a military intervention in Yemen against Iran-supported Shiite Huthi rebels.
The UN said another 3,000 people had been wounded and 2.5 million people forced to flee their homes.
Organisers of the Doha conference said they may have to rely on the UN to deliver aid in areas controlled by rebels.