The strikes came as a car bomb wounded at least 37 people, including children, in a government-controlled neighbourhood of the central city of Homs, state television reported.
The two barrel bombs also wounded dozens of people in the camp near Habeet, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.
Most of the camp's residents had fled fighting in the central province of Hama, the Britain-based group added.
Video posted on YouTube by activists showed bodies lying among olive trees whose branches were littered with shreds of white canvas from tents that had been ripped apart by the bombs.
In Homs, several wounded children were in serious condition after the car bombing in the the Al-Zahraa district of Syria's third largest city, state television reported.
The Observatory said that one person had been killed.
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The majority of Al-Zahraa's residents are Alawite, the same sect to which President Bashar al-Assad belongs.
Government-controlled areas of Homs have been hit by a series of bombings in recent months.
In early October, a double bombing at a school in another Alawite neighbourhood killed 52 people, among them 48 children.
Afterwards, angry parents and residents held demonstrations calling for the resignation of senior security officials.
Two were reassigned, although the Homs governor denied the move was related to the demonstrations.
Homs was once known as the "capital of the revolution" because of the strength of anti-government activity in the city in the months after the uprising against Assad's rule erupted in March 2011.
But all of the city is now back under government control, except for the Waer district on its northwestern outskirts.