The court gave one Saudi 10 years in jail and another seven for giving a television network "hostile to the kingdom" protest footage captured on a phone in Qatif, the epicentre of Shiite-led anti-regime protests.
The same court, which specialises in terrorism, sentenced a third individual to 10 years for taking part in demonstrations in Awamiyeh, an eastern town near Qatif, that called for the "fall of the regime".
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It gave another defendant an eight-year prison term for having travelled to war-torn Syria and pledging allegiance to the head of the Sunni jihadist Islamic State group.
Another was sentenced to seven years in jail for going to Iraq to fight alongside jihadists after receiving combat training at a camp in Yemen, where Al-Qaeda is highly active.
Scores of Saudis are believed to be in the ranks of radical Islamist groups in areas of unrest across the Middle East, including Iraq and Syria.
King Abdullah in February decreed jail terms of up to 20 years for citizens who travel abroad to fight, after the conflict in Syria attracted hundreds of Saudis.