"Such acts that target unarmed civilians contradict all principles and moral and human values," the foreign ministry said in a statement.
Doha, accused of supporting radical Islamist groups in Libya and Syria, offered condolences to the French government and the families of the victims.
Gunmen shouting Islamist slogans stormed the offices of the satirical weekly, armed with an AK-47 assault rifle and a grenade launcher.
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Editor-in-chief Stephane Charbonnier and three cartoonists were among those killed in the attack, a judicial source in Paris said.
Charlie Hebdo had attracted controversy by publishing satirical cartoons of Prophet Mohammed.
The International Union of Muslim Scholars, led by Doha-based controversial cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi, also condemned the "sinful" attack, "regardless of who are the culprits and who is behind them."
It urged "French authorities and people to unite against extremism regardless of its religion or belief".
"Those who are committing such crimes aim to sow sedition," the union said.