Two passengers found with ammunition hidden inside toys were arrested on Monday at Israel's Ben Gurion airport, an airport spokesman said.
One of them, a 36-year-old Israeli man, was arrested as he was about to board an Uzbekistan Airways flight for Tashkent.
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Security staff found a loaded magazine inside a toy boat in his hand luggage and he tried to flee but was caught.
During checks and searches after his arrest, bullets and drugs were found inside a toy doll in the bag of an Uzbek woman who was also arrested, the spokesman said.
He said initial investigations pointed to a common law crime rather than a case of airport security being tested to prepare for a future attack.
Tel Aviv's Ben Gurion airport is considered one of the world's safest because of the strict security measures in force.