Israeli MPs on Wednesday voted through a law which will compel ultra-Orthodox Jews to either serve in the military or perform civilian service.
The bill was voted through by 65 to 1 in a poll broadcast on Israel's parliamentary television channel.
The lone dissenting vote was cast by an MP from the far-right Jewish Home who broke coalition discipline to oppose the law.
Opposition parties within the 120-seat parliament had earlier announced they would not participate in the vote.
The cabinet last year agreed to end a practice under which tens of thousands of ultra-Orthodox were exempted from military service if they were in full-time study at a Jewish seminary, or yeshiva.
The new legislation stipulates that ultra-Orthodox men must either join the army or perform civilian service, in a law which will go into force in 2017.
The law also includes a clause stipulating sanctions against draft dodgers -- including imprisonment -- in a move which has enraged the ultra-Orthodox leadership who said it would be tantamount to jailing people for practising their faith.
Military service is compulsory in Israel, with men serving three years and women two.
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Earlier this month, more than 300,000 ultra-Orthodox took to the streets of Jerusalem in a mass prayer vigil to protest against the impending legislation.
The new law is seen by many Israelis as amending the historic injustice of an exemption handed to the ultra-Orthodox in 1948, when Israel was created. At that time they were a small segment of society.
Because of their high birth rate, the ultra-Orthodox community has since swelled to make up roughly 10 percent of the country's population of just over eight million, and continues to be the fastest-growing sector in Israel.
Later on Wednesday, parliament also passed a bill mandating that in a future peace agreement any proposal to cede land over which Israel claims sovereignty would be subject to a referendum.
While it would cover mainly Arab east Jerusalem and the Golan Heights -- which Israel has annexed -- it does not apply to land in the West Bank, which is not annexed.
It strengthens previous legislation which said a plebiscite was not mandatory if the territorial concession was supported by two-thirds of the legislature's 120 MPs.
It is seen as a gesture to rightwing ministers apprehensive of concessions that could be demanded of Israel in peace talks with the Palestinians.
A parliamentary statement said that the new bill was approved by 68 votes to none against, after opposition members also boycotted that session.