"Hamas is totally opposed to any return to the UN Security Council by the Palestinian Authority," spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri said in a statement.
"Such a step would be political foolishness which plays a dangerous game with the destiny of our nation.
"Mahmud Abbas and the leadership of the Palestinian Authority should completely stop this political foolishness," Abu Zuhri said.
On January 2, the Palestinian leadership decided to refile a draft resolution setting a deadline for reaching a final peace deal and ending the occupation. The draft had failed to pass a vote in the Security Council on December 30.
Speaking to AFP, Abbas's spokesman Nabil Abu Rudeina said the resolution would be presented again "soon", without saying exactly when.
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The vote saw Security Council heavyweights China, France and Russia among eight countries who gave their support, while the United States and Australia voted against.
Five other countries, including Britain, abstained -- among them Nigeria which had been expected to vote in favour but changed its stance at the last minute.
The failure to win the nine "yes" votes necessary for the resolution to be adopted spared Washington from having to wield its veto, a move sure to cause embarrassment with its key Arab allies.
But it was a diplomatic blow for the Palestinians who had been counting on the symbolic victory of nine votes, even though the resolution would in all likelihood have been blocked by a US veto.
However, on January 1 the makeup of the 15-member council changed with the addition of five new non-permanent members -- Angola, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain and Venezuela -- some of which are perceived as having a more pro-Palestinian stance.