The cause of the accident involving a Boeing 777 was not immediately clear, Dubai's government and the carrier said.
Footage on social media showed thick black smoke billowing from the aircraft.
"An Emirates plane coming from India has been involved in an accident on landing at Dubai International," the government's Dubai Media Office said on its Twitter account.
"All passengers were evacuated safely," it said.
Emirates confirmed the incident.
"We can confirm flight EK521 from Thiruvananthapuram to Dubai has been involved in an accident at Dubai International," the carrier said on its Twitter account.
"We can confirm there are no fatalities among our passengers and crew. All passengers and crew are accounted for and safe," it said.
Airport authorities halted all operations at Dubai International until further notice, Dubai Airports said on Twitter.
It said later that departures would resume from 6:30 pm (1430 GMT) "with larger aircraft given first priority."
Arriving planes have been diverted to other airports, the government said. Dubai opened a smaller second airport, Al-Maktoum International, in 2013.
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- Cause unknown -
Emirates said that there were 282 passengers and 18 crew members on board, including 226 Indians, 24 Britons and 11 Emirati nationals.
The airline had initially said that there were 275 passengers and crew on board.
Emirates said it had "no further information on what may have caused the accident".
"Our priority remains with the passengers and crew involved," it said.
The director general of the General Civil Aviation Authority, Saif al-Suwaidi, said that investigators had been sent to work with Emirates and the Dubai airport authorities.
Footage on social media showed thick black smoke coming out of the centre of the plane while the fuselage appeared to be lying on the runway with escape slides opened.
The Dubai Media Office said the fire "has been contained," adding that emergency teams at the airport and Emirates are "well trained to deal with such incidents".
The accident comes almost four months after a plane belonging to Dubai's other carrier, flydubai, crashed and burst into flames as it was landing in Rostov-on-Don, in southern Russia, killing all 61 people onboard.
On July 26, an Emirates Boeing 777-300 aircraft heading to the Maldives made an emergency landing in Mumbai because of a "technical fault".
Dubai International is the world's largest hub in terms of international passengers, and is the base for Emirates, from where it serves more than 153 destinations.
Emirates, Qatar Airways and Abu Dhabi's Etihad have seized a significant portion of transcontinental travel, capitalising on the geographic locations of their Gulf hubs.
Emirates is the largest single operator of the Boeing 777, as well as the Airbus A380 superjumbo, and expanded its fleet to 250 aircraft last year.